By Patti Simons


"Plants can only be called deer resistant not = deer proof. Some plants are quite tasty to deer, others less so. Depending on the density of the deer population, drought = conditions and the availability of other more palatable plants some plants are more = resistant than others. This list is an attempt to classify and define, as a food source for deer, the = desirability of many plants typically found in Central Texas."*

Camouflage Gardening is simply using plants that = contain natural chemicals and have characteristics that deter deer from wanting to eat them. A = scent barrier is created by using a variety of strongly aromatic plants, shrubs and herbs throughout the = garden.

Deer rely on their sense of smell to determine what is safe and = desirable to eat. A wide variety of strong odors confuse the deer. The animal will generally = leave the area and go to a landscape where it can clearly identify what it is eating.

A Deer-Resistant garden = can be created by following four easy steps:

1. Plant list #1 specifies many strongly aromatic plants to use, in = ample numbers, throughout the landscape. Use two plants from list #1 for every one plant on = list #3 or #4.

2. All plants listed #2, have some or all of the = following characteristics: bitter taste, coarse/tough hairy or prickly leaves and/or caustic milky/sticky sap. Deer rarely eat = these plants. Use these plants freely throughout the landscape.

3. Plants in this category reseed prolifically, grow rampantly or = spread aggressively by underground roots. Hidden within an aromatic garden, = these #3 plants rapidly reward the homeowner by ceaselessly increasing in numbers.

Trees suffer two types of damage from deer: the foliage will be eaten = to the browse line (appx. 5-1/2' from the ground), and bucks often fight with and polish their = antlers on resilient saplings, tree trunks under 3" in diameter, and multi-trunk ornamentals. Until the = trees mature, it is wise to protect them with an evergreen scent barrier or a wire cage.

4. Once the perennial and evergreen aromatic plants are used in ample = numbers, list #4, vertical growers (climbing vines and shrubs) and a limited number of your = favorite deer-desirable in-town plants can be hidden within the scent barrier.

CAUTION: Deer will eat almost anything in the = Spring. This is the time when plants are the most tender and are highest in nutrition. This same Spring-time/lush = growth occurs in new nursery stock and when the gardener constantly fertilizes plants. It = will be necessary to spray with Cloud Cover or other deer repellant for approximately = three (3) weeks while the plants "harden off" and become less palatable to deer.

Instead of fertilizing, promote growth and blooms by two easier = methods. Providing very healthy soil, through purchase or amendment, promotes = stronger plants that are more deer-resistant, disease free and are more prolific producers of foliage = or fruit.=20

Deadheading (removing spent blossoms)encourages the = plant to bloom repeatedly in order to set seed. However, the foliage can toughen up naturally.


1996 Patti Simons email: =

General Plant List Type CAT Common = Name Size Bloom Color Bloom Time
Aesculus pavia* Dsh 1 Red Buckeye 25' red Apr-May Irritation/gut pain/bitter = taste
Andropogon gerardi* =20 Gr 1 Big Bluestem 3-6' cream Aug-Nov Rarely eaten
Anisacanthus wrightii* P 1 Flame Acanthus 4' orange Jun-Oct Aromatic foliage/strong = taste
Anisodontea 'tara's wonder' ? 1 Mini Mallow 2' pink Summer Strongly aromatic/prolific blmr/new to area =
Aristida purpurea Gr 1 Purple Treeawn 18" purple Apr-Oct. Rarely eaten/wildlife = habitat
Artemisia ludoviciana x P 1 White Sage 2' yellow Jul-Oct. Aromatic/aggressive growth
Asclepias linaria P 1 Pineleaf Milkweed 2' white Mar-Oct. Sap/interesting foliage, flower and = pod
Asclepias sublata P 1 Desert Milkweed 4' yellow Apr-Oct. Sap rubber/interesting vertical plant/pod dried arrangements
Asparagus springerii x E 1 Asparagus Fern 6' Rarely eaten/red berries fall/attracts = birds
Bouteloua curtipendula* Gr 1 Sideoats Grama 30" gold June-Nov Rarely eaten
Buchloe dactyliodes* Gr 1 Buffalo Grass 1' Rarely eaten
Buxus sempervirens E 1 Boxwood 1-5' Toxic/leaves/twigs/aroma/acrid = taste
Cassia corymbosa* ESh 1 Common Tree Senna 3-5' yellow Jul-Sept Toxic/bitter taste/not tr sz due to = fz/return
Cestrum nocturnum P 1 Nt. Blooming Jasmine 3' white Summer Toxic/all parts
Chamaecyparis spp. Dtr 1 Cypress 30' Toxic/all parts/aromatic
Chasmanthium latifolium* P 1 Inland Seaoats 3' cream May-Oct Rarely eaten
Chelidnium majus Bi 1 Celandine Poppy 4' yellow Summer Pungent smell/acrid taste
Chrysanthemum mexicana* P 1 Damianita 18" yellow Jun-Oct Aromatic/coarse foliage
Eupatorium rugosum* =20 P 1 White Snakeroot 3' White Aug-Nov Toxic/All parts
Euphorbia antisyphilitica E 1 Candelilla 1' pink May-Oct. Sap/ irritation/pain to gut/Interesting = vertical accent
Flourensia cernua E 1 Tarbush 3' yellow Sep-Dec. Aromatic foliage w/resin
Gutierezia sarothrea EP 1 Snakeweed 18" yellow Fall Toxic/all parts/bitter, soap taste/turpentine odor
Hesperaloe paviflora x ESh 1 Red Yucca 2' coral Spring Coarse foliage/deer will always nip flower spike
Heterotheca latifolia* P 1 Golden Aster 30" yellow Aug-Nov Aromatic/camphor odor
Ilex vomitoria 'nana' x ESh 1 Dwarf Yaupon Holly 18" Rarely eaten/no berries
Jasminum mesyni x Sh 1 Primrose Jasmine 3-6' yellow Spring Seldom eaten, marvelous cascading = shrub
Jatropha cardiophylla E 1 Limber Bush 3' pods Sept. Bitter Sap when broken
Jatropha cuneata Sh 1 Leather Plant 3' pods Sept. Bitter Sap when = broken/semievergreen
Jatropha dioica DSh 1 Sangre de Drago 6' white Apr-May Bitter Red Sap/blood of the = dragon
Juniperus ashei* ESh 1 Ashe Juniper 18' Aromatic/coarse foliage
Juniperus spp. x ESh 1 Juniper 18" Aromatic/coarse foliage
Juniperus virginia* ESh 1 Eastern Red Cedar 30' Aromatic/coarse foliage
Larrea tridentata* Sh 1 Creosote Bush 6' yellow April Aromatic/sticky sap/rarely = eaten
Machaeranthera phyllocephala* A 1 Camphor Daisy 2' yellow Mar-Dec Aromatic/ camphor odor
Muhlenbergia capillaris* Gr 1 Gulf Coast Muhly 2' purple Aug-Oct Rarely eaten
Muhlenbergia dubia* Gr 1 Pine Muhly 3' cream Aug-Nov Rarely eaten
Muhlenbergia dubiodes* Gr 1 Weeping Muhly 18" cream Aug-Nov Rarely eaten
Muhlenbergia lindheimeri Gr 1 Muhly Grass 2-5' silver Mid-Oct Rarely eaten
Muhlenbergia rigens* Gr 1 Metcalf Muhly 18" silver Sept-Nov Rarely eaten/wildlife = habitat
Origanum vulgare x P 1 Oregano 1-3' Aromatic spreading herb
Pectis angustifolia* A 1 Lemon Pectis 8' yellow June-Oct Aromatic/strong lemon
Perilla frutescens A 1 Perilla Mint 18" Aromatic/pungent/ Toxic/leaves bronze-purple
Perovskia atriplicifolia* P 1 Russian Sage 3' lav blue July-Oct Aromatic/outgrow/aggressive
Poliomintha longifolia* P 1 Mexican Oregano 3' lav whit May-Aug Aromatic/evergreen/long bloom period/sm.shrub
Polyantha Rose ESh 1 The Fairy 3' lt pink Reblooms Wonderful rose/out blooms and outgrows deer
Rosmarinus officinalis* x ESh 1 Hill Hdy. Rosemary 3' blue Feb-Apr Aromatic/almost evergreen/use all varieties/plant alot
Salvia azurea v.pitcheriii* P 1 Pitcher Sage 3' sky blue May-Oct Aromatic/lacy gray-green = foliage
Salvia ballotaeflora* P 1 Blue Shrub Sage 5' blue May-Oct Aromatic/gray-green.foliage
Salvia chamaedryoides* P 1 Gray Shrub Sage 3' blue Apr-Oct Aromatic/silver foliage
Salvia discolor* =20 P 1 Silver Peruvian Sage 3' purple Apr-My Aromatic/blooms almost black against silver foliage
Salvia farinacea* x P 1 Mealy Blue Sage 3' blue Mar-Nov Aromatic/never eaten/blooms Spring to = Fall
Salvia greggii x lyciodes* P 1 'Nuevo Leon" 18" purple Apr-Nov Aromatic/lacy foliage
Salvia greggii x S.microphylia* P 1 'Red Velvet' 2' red May-Oct Aromatic/evergreen/great = bloomer
Salvia greggii* x =20 P 1 Cherry Sage 3' red Mar-Nov Aromatic/mature leaves rarely eaten/long bloom period
Salvia guaranitica* P 1 Magestic Sage 4' blu &pur Apr-Oct Aromatic/wonderful plant
Salvia leucantha* x P 1 Mexican Bush Sage 4' purple Sept-Oct Aromatic/silver foliage/good = bloom
Salvia longispica x farinacea* P 1 'Indigo Spires' 4' blue Apr-Oct Aromatic/just blooms, blooms, = blooms
Salvia lycioides* P 1 Canyon Sage 18" blue Spr/Fall Aromatic/evergreen
Salvia lyrata* =20 P 1 Lyre-Leaf Sage 18" blue Feb-Apr Aromatic/reseeds = aggresively
Salvia regla* P 1 Mountain Sage 3' orange Sept-Oct Aromatic/tall open
Salvia roemeriana* P 1 Cedar Sage 1' red Mar-June Aromatic/repeat bloomer
Salvia uliginosa * P 1 Bog Sage 5' blue Mar-Nov Aromatic/aggressive
Sambacus canadensis* DSh 1 Elderberry 10' white May-Sept Toxic/aggressive growth/beautiful = flowers
Santolina chamaecyparissus x P 1 Santolina 2 yellow Summer Aromatic, felted, fine textured = foliage
Santolina virens EP 1 Santolina 18" yellow Summer Aromatic, rich green threadlike = foliage
Schizachryium scoparium* Gr 1 Little Bluestem 3' white Aug-Nov Rarely eaten
Stachys coccinea* =20 P 1 Texas Betony 1' red Mar-Oct Aromatic/low mat-forming
Stipa tenuissima* Gr 1 Mexican Feathergrass 18" gold May-Aug Rarely eaten
Tagetes lemmonii*=20 P 1 Copper Canyon Daisy 3-4' yellow May-Sept Aromatic
Tagetes lucida* =20 P 1 Mexican Marigold 20" yellow May-Sept Aromatic/tarrogon/great fall = bloomer
Tanacetum vulgare P 1 Tansy 3' yellow Toxic/all parts/aromatic
Thelesperma filifolium*=20 A 1 Black-eyed Susan 2' yellow Feb-Dec Aromatic
Truja spp.=20 x E 1 Cedar 20' Aromatic/strong oil/bitter = taste
Verbesina enceliodies* A 1 Cow-Pen Daisy 3' yellow Feb-Dec Strong odor when touched
Verbesina virginia P 1 Frostweed 3-7' white Aug-Nov Sap/bitter taste/attracts Monarch = Butterflies
Xanthocephalum dracunculiodes* P 1 Common Broomweed 3' yellow Sept-Dec Rarely eaten
Achillea millefolium* x P 2 Yarrow 10" white Apr-Jun Tastes bitter/aromatic
Adonis annua* A 2 Pheasant's Eye 1-2' red Feb-Jun Toxic/bitter taste/dry/easy frm seed/1% =
Aesculus arguta* DSh 2 White Buckeye 25' pl.yello Apr-May Irritation/pain in digestive tract/bitter = taste
Aesculus pavia* Tr 2 Red Buckeye 25' red Apr-May Toxic
Agave leuchugilla* ESh 2 Agave 12' purple Rainfall Coarse foliage
Agave scabra* Esh 2 Century Plant 1' yellow Apr-May Coarse foliage
Apocynum androsaemilolium* P 2 Dogbane 2' pink Apr-July Milky sap/bitter sap
Argemone mexicana* A 2 Yellow Prickly Poppy 18" yellow Apr-Oct Toxic/all parts/prickly foliage/bitter = taste
Argemone sanguinea* A 2 Rose Prickly Poppy 4' rose Feb-May Prickly foliage/easy from seed/good = cut
Argemone texana* =20 P 2 White Prickly Poppy 30" white Apr-May Toxic/all parts/prickly foliage/bitter = taste
Asclepias asperula* =20 P 2 Antelope-Horns 8" gr/yel Mar-Nov Sap tastes bitter/attracts = butterflies
Asclepias tuberosa* =20 P 2 Butterfly Weed 2' orange Apr-Sept Tastes bitter/milky sap
Asclepias virdii* =20 P 2 Green Milkweed 2' green Mar-Sept Tastes bitter/milky sap
Baileya multiradiata* A 2 Desert Marigold 9" yellow Mar-Oct Coarse foliage/reseeds
Baptisia spp. P 2 False Indigo 3-6' blue May Toxic/all parts/tastes = bitter
Berberis swaseyi* ESh 2 Tex.Barberry 3-4' yellow Spring Rarely eaten
Bervberus trifoliolata* x ESh 2 Agarita 4' Prickly, coarse foliage/bitter = taste
Brugmansia spp. P 2 Yellow Datura 3-4' yellow summer Strong odor/burning taste/sweet smelling evening blooms
Bucharest sarothroides(F) ESh 2 Dessert Broom 5' white Fall Pods cover plant in fluffy = blanket
Caesalpinia gilliesii*=20 P 2 Bird of Paradise 5' yel/red May-Sep Rarely eaten
Carduus nutans* =20 Bi 2 Nodding Thistle 30" pink May-Jul Musk odor/prickly
Carduus texanum* Bi 2 Texas Thistle 4' pink May-Jul Prickly foliage/sap
Centaurea melitensis* A 2 Tocalote Thistle 30" yellow Mar-Aug Musk odor/prickly
Centaurea texanum* Bi 2 Texas Thistle 4' pink May-Jul Prickly foliage/sap
Centaurium beyrichii P 2 Mountain Pink 9" pink Summer Relatively unpalatable
Cephalanthus occidentalis Sh 2 Common Buttonbush 2-3' white Jun-Se Toxic/leaves
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum*x ES 2 Ox-Eye Daisy 2' white May Aromatic
Cichorium intybus* P 2 Chicory 3' blue Jun-Oct Milky sap/bitter taste
Cirsium horridulum* ES 2 Yellow Thistle 3' yellow Mar-Jun Prickly foliage
Cleome serrulata A 2 Bee Plant 4' many May-Oct Toxic/leaves/prolific = blooms/reseeds
Colchium autumnal S 2 Autumn Crocus 8" yellow Fall Toxic/all parts/intense pain in = gut/1%
Convallaria majalis Blb 2 Lily-of-the-Valley 8" white Spring Toxic/all parts
Cordalis aurea* A 2 Scrambeled Eggs 1-2' yellow Feb-Apr Toxic/bitter taste
Dalea greggii* =20 P 2 Gregg Dalea/silver 1' purple Apr-Nov Nipped/surround with = aromatics
Datura innoxia P 2 Datura 3-5' white Summer Toxic/all parts/wonderful = bloom
Datura metheioldes P 2 Datura 3-5' dbl pur Summer Toxic/all parts/wonderful blooms & = foliage
Datura quercifolia A 2 Datura 3-5' white Summer Toxic/all parts/wonderful blooms/oak leaf foliage
Datura wrightii* =20 P 2 Datura/Jimsonweed 3' white May-Nov Toxic/all parts/bitter taste/fragrant = flower
Daucus carota* =20 P 2 Queen Anne's Lace 30" white May-Jul Rarely eaten/Blooms = abundantly
Delphinium carolinianum* P 2 Blue Larkspur 2' blue May-Jul Toxic/all parts when young/seeds as grows older
Descuraninia pinnata A 2 Tansy Mustard 3' yellow Feb-Apr Winter/dens.hairy/sticky/poor = soil/1%
Digitalis purpurea Bi 2 Foxglove 3-5' pink Spring Pain in mouth/throat
Dyschoriste linearis* P 2 Snake Herb 1' purple Jun-Oct Bitter taste/spicy = fragrance
Dyssodia pentachaeta* A 2 Parralena 8" yellow Mar-Dec Unpleasant scent/bitter = taste
Dyssodia setifolia v radiata A 2 Tiny Tim 12" yellow Mar-Frz Gray furry foliage/strong scent/bitter = taste
Ericameria laricifolia Sh 2 Turpentine Bush 2-3' yellow Sep-Nov Sticky resin/strong scent
Erygium heterophyllum* P 2 Mexican Thistle 2' sk blue Aug-Oct Coarse silver foliage/dries = well
Eryngium leavenworthii* P 2 Eryngo 3' purple Aug-Sep Coarse foliaged/dries well
Eschscholtzia californica A 2 California Poppy 1' orange Spring Toxic/all parts
Eupatorium perforlifum P 2 Joe-pye Weed 3-5' pink Sep-Frz Toxic/all parts/likes damp = places
Euphorbia bicolor A 2 Snow-on-the- Prairie 1-3' wh/gren Aug-Oct
Euphorbia marginata A 2 Snow-on-the-Mountain 2' wh/gren May-Oct Sap/irritation/pain in gut
Europs spp. P 2 Daisy Bush 2' yellow Summer Aromatic silver or green = foliage
Excium vulgare L. Bi 2 Viper's Buglass 1' purple Summer Toxic/all parts/bitter taste/reseeds/attracts bees
Ficus pumila x E 2 Fig Vine 6' cover/not easily eaten by = deer
Gaillardia pulchella*=20 A 2 Indian Blanket 14" red/yel Feb-Dec Rarely eaten
Gloriosa supurba L. B 2 Gloriosa Lily 6-8' yel/red Summer Toxic/all parts/intense pain in = gut/1%
Gomphrena globosa A 2 Globe Amarantha 1' pu/pk/w Summer Rarely eaten/red most often nipped repeatedly
Grindelia lanceolata P 2 Fall Gumweed 2-3' yellow Fall Sticky to touch
Helianthus angustifolius* P 2 Swamp Sunflower 3' yellow Aug-Nov Toxic
Helenium amarum* A 2 Bitterweed 1' yellow Apr-Frz Bitter taste/prolific = bloomer
Heliotropium helianthoides P 2 Yellow Ox-eye 3-4' yellow Summer Toxic/all parts
Hymenoxys scaposa* x P 2 Four-Nerve Daisy 10" yellow Feb-Oct Bitter taste/aromatic
Iscoma wrightii* =20 A 2 Jimmyweed 2' yellow Jun-Oct Bitter tastes/sticky
Lantana camara & montevidensis x P 2 Lantana 1-3' many Summer Aromatic/aggressive growth/long bloom period
Lantana horrida* =20 P 2 Texas Lantana 3-5' or/yel Apr-Oct Toxic/coarse foliage
Leucophyllum frutescens* ESh 2 Cenizo 3-6' pink Jun-Oct Toxic/bucks fight w/in = fall
Linum sulcatum* A 2 Y.Prairie Flax 1-1' yellow May-Aug Toxic/many flowers/delicate = look/1%
Lipidium montanum* P 2 Westn.Peppergrass 1-2' white Mar-Frz Aromatic/strong peppery = odor
Lobelia cardinalis* P 2 Cardinal Flower 3' red May-Dec Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste
Lobelia siphilitica A 2 Blue Cardinal Flower 3' blue May Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste/1%
Lupinus texensis* =20 A 2 Texas Bluebonnet 1' blue Mar-May Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste
Lycium andersonii Sh 2 Desert Wolfberry 6' lavender Feb-May Bitter taste/trumpet flowers turn to red berries
Lycium berlandieri Sh 2 Berlandier Wolfberry 6' pl lav Mar-Sep Bitter taste/Fall berries
Lycium fremontii Sh 2 Fremont Thornbush 3' white=20 lav Sp/Fall Bitter taste/two season = bloom
Melampodium leucanthum* P 2 Black-Foot Daisy 10" wh=20 lav Mar-Nov Rarely eaten
Monardia citriodora* P 2 Lemon Beebalm 30" mauve May-Jun Aromatic/citronella taste
Nyctagina capitata* P 2 Scarlet Musk-Flwr 1-2' pnk/red Apr-Nov Aromatic/open eve/gd flwr/devil's = bouquet
Ophiopogon japonica EGr 2 Mondo 6-8" Rarely eaten
Oxytropis lambertii*=20 P 2 Locoweed 1' pink Apr-Jul Toxic/all parts
Palafoxia hookeriana* A 2 Palafoxia 2-4' pink Sum&Fal Sticky to feel/reseeds
Papaver Nudicaule P 2 Iceland Poppy 1-2' many Apr-May Topxic/all part
Papaver Oriental A 2 Oriental Poppy 4' many Apr-May Toxic/all parts
Papaver Rhoeas A 2 Corn Poppy 2-5' many May Toxic/all parts
Papaver somniferum A 2 Opium Poppy 4' many Spring Toxic/all parts
Parkinsonia aculeata* Tr 2 Paloverde/ Retama 12' yellow Spring Coarse/nip to browse but = outgrow
Phlomis spp. P 2 Phlomis 4' yellow Summer Aromatic
Physalis spp. A 2 Ground Cherry 9" blue Summer Toxic/all parts/Fall berry
Phystegia intermedia* P 2 Spr.Obedient Plant 3' lav Mar-Jun Aromatic/outgrow nips/aggressive = growth
Phystegia virginiana* P 2 Fall Obedient Plant 3' pk/white July-Oct Aromatic/outgrow/aggressive = growth
Pluchea camphorata* A 2 Camphor Weed 2-4' pink Jul-Nov Aromatic/coarse/many flowers/damp = soil
Pluchea purpurascens* A 2 Marsh Fleabane 1-3' pink May-Dec Aromatic/coarse/many flowers/damp = soil
Picradeniopsis spp. P 2 Bahia 1' yellow Sp &Fal Bitter taste
Plumbago auriculata x P 2 Cape Plumbago 1-2' blue Summer Rarely eaten/Fall = foliage/draping
Polaniaia uniglandulosa* A 2 Clammyweed 2' white May-Sep Sticky/profuse blooms/reseeds = aggressively
Polytaenia nuttallii* Bi 2 Wild Dill 3' yellow Apr-Jun Bitter taste/slight aroma
Prionopsis ciliata* =20 A 2 Saw-Leaf Daisy 30" yellow Aug-Oct Toxic/coarse foliage
Psilostrophe tagetina* =20 P 2 Woolly Paper Flw 1' yellow Mar-Oct Toxic/all parts
Psoralea tenuiflora* P 2 Scurfy Pea 2' vio blue May-Jly Rarely eaten/lax/mny = flw/1%
Pteridium auilinum P 2 Bracken Fern 1-2' Toxic/all parts/likes to be = dry
Quincula lobata* P 2 Pur Ground Cherry 1' purple Mar-Dec Toxic/all parts/blooms continually =
Rhus aromatica* Sh 2 Aromatic Sumac 6' foliage Fall Coarse foliage/rarely = eaten
Rhus virens* Tr 2 Evergreen Sumac 8' foliage Fall Coarse foliage/rarely = eaten
Rudbeckia fulgida* =20 A 2 Goldstrum Rudbeckia 3' yellow Jun-Sep Coarse foliage
Rudbeckia hirta* x =20 A 2 Black-eyed Susan 2' yellow May-Sep Rarely eaten
Rudbeckia lacinata P 2 Goldenglow 3-5' yellow Jun&Oct All parts cause irritation/pain in gut/ Aggressive growth
Salvia coccinea* x P 2 Tropical Sage 30" o/p/r/w May-Oct Aromatic/aggressive = bloomer/reseeder
Sapindus drummondii*x Sh 2 Soapberry 15' foliage Fall Toxic/all parts
Saponaria officinalis P 2 Bouncing Bet 3' pink Summer Bitter/soap-like = taste/bloomer/draping
Scutellaria seleniana* P 2 Skullcap 3' purple Apr-Aug Coarse foliage
Scutellaria suffrutescens* P 2 Pink Skullcap 1' pink May-Nov Coarse evergreen/ever = bloom
Senecio ampullaaceus* A 2 Tx.Squaw-Weed 1-3' yellow Feb-Apr Toxic/agg growth/poor = soil/1%
Senecio jacobea BI 2 Tansy Ragwort 3' yellow Aug-Sep Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste
Senecio leucostachys A 2 Dusty Miller 1' Toxic/silver leaves/bitter = taste
Silphium albifloum* P 2 Rosin Weed 40" white May-Jul Sticky sap/stem/leaves
Silphium simpsonii v.wrightii*=20 P 2 Simpson R. Weed 4' yellow Jun-Jul Sticky sap/stem/leaves
Solanum elaeanifolium* P 2 Slv-Leaf Nightshade 3' pur& wh Mar-Oct Toxic/prickly/black fruit = fall/bitter
Solanum jasminoides PV 2 Potato Vine 15' white Apr-Oct Toxic/all parts/bitter,soap-like taste/wonderful blooms
Solanum speudocapsicum P 2 Jerusalem Cherry 1' blue Apr-Oct Toxic/all parts/bitter taste/aggressive = reseeder
Solidago canadensis* P 2 Goldenrod 4' yellow Sep-Nov Toxic/coarse foliage
Solidago mollis P 2 Goldenrod 4' yellow Fall Toxoc/coarse foliage
Solidago petiolaris* P 2 Goldenrod 4' yellow Fall Toxic/coarse foliage/agg./lg.flower = clusers
Solidago rugosa P 2 Goldenrod 4' yellow Fall Toxic/coarse foliage = aggressive
Sophora secundiflora* ETr 2 Texas Mtn. Laurel 8' purple Mar-May Toxic/all parts/buck damage = fall
Stachys byzantina x P 2 Lamb's Ears 6" lav Summer Rarely eaten/great silver = groundcover
Symphytum spp. A 2 Comfrey 3' lav May-Aug Toxic/all parts
Tephorosia lindheimerie* P 2 Lindheimer Tephrosia 3' pink Mar-Oct Rarely eaten/aggressive = growth
Veratrum viride P 2 False Hellebore Toxic/all parts
Verbascum thapsus* Bi 2 Common Mullein 30" yellow Jul-Sep Toxic/all pts/rosette of silver leaves until = spike appears
Verbena bipinnatifida* P 2 Prairie Verbena 1' pink Apr-Oct Aromatic/many flowers/nip but = outgrow
Verbena peruviana x E 2 Peruvian Verbena 1x4' pink Apr-Oct Aromatic/agg.growth/almost evergreen/long bloom
Verbena tenuisecta* P 2 Moss Verbena 1' pk &pur Apr-Oct Fern-like foliage/Long bloom period/nip but outgrow
Vernonia baldwinii*=20 P 2 Western Ironweed 2' pink Jul-Oct Coarse foliage
Vernonia lindheimeri* P 2 Woolly Ironweed 32" pink May-Aug Coarse foliage/silver = foliage
Viburnum rufidulum* Sh 2 Rusty Blackhaw 5' white May Coarse foliage/silver underside/nice flower/berries in Fall
Viguiera denata* =20 P 2 Golden-eye 3' yellow Oct-Nov Musky odor
Vinca rosea A 2 Madagascar Periwinkle 1-2' many May-Sep Aromatic/rarely eaten/prolific bloomer/may reseed
Wisteria macrostachya* P 2 Wisteria vine purple April Rarely eaten/nip but = outgrow
Zantedeschia aethiopica P 2 Calla Lily 2' white spring Sap/in all parts burns = mouth/1%
Zinnia acerosa* =20 P 2 Native Zinnia 10" white Jun-Oct Rarely eaten
Zinnia grandiflora EP 2 Zinnia 6-8" yellow May-Oct Rarely eaten/attracts = butterflies
Actae pachpoda spp. Sh 3 Baneberry 2' white Apr-May Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste/berries
Allamanda cathartica A 3 Allamanda 10' yellow Jun-Sep Toxic/all parts/sap
Allium spp. P 3 Onions, Chives 1-2' many Apr-Oct Nipped but not = killed/Toxic/1%
Amelanchier spp. Tr 3 Serviceberry white April Toxic/leaves/twigs
Amsonia illustris P 3 Showy Blue-Star 2-4' blue Mar-Jun Coarse foliage/gd flwr/damp/easy = seed/1%
Aster pratensis P 3 Meadow Aster 2-3' purple Sep-Nov Many flw/nip but worth = planting/1%
Callicarpa americana* x DSh 3 American Beauty Bush 3-5' Eat foliage/Fall berry = beautiful
Caltha palustris P 3 Windflower 2' yellow April Bitter taste/1%
Cassia lindheimeriana* P 3 Lindheimer Senna 2' yellow Aug-Sep Toxic/bitter taste
Cassia roemeriana* P 3 Two-Leaved Senna 2' yellow Apr-Sep Toxic/long bloom per./easy from = seed/1%
Cheiranthus chieranthoides Bi 3 Wormseed Wallflower 1-2' many Spring Bitter taste
Cooperia drummondii* P 3 Rain Lily 1' white Rainfal Aggressively reseed/1%
Cooperia pedunculata* P 3 Rain Lily 1' yellow Fall =20 Aggressive reseeder/bloom after = rain/1%
Cotinus obovatus* DSh 3 Am.Smoke Tree 15' rose Spring Nip but outgrow/wonderful = tree
Cotoneaster glaucophyllus ESh 3 Cotoneaster 4' Generally not eaten/silver foliage/rd fall fruit/att.birds
Cotoneaster horizontalis x ESh 3 Cotoneaster 3' Generally not eaten/red fall = fruit/birds
Cytisus scoparius Dsh 3 Broom 1-3' yellow Summer Bitter taste
Dalea frutescens* x P 3 Black Dalea 2' purple Jul-Oct Delicate looking silver = foliage
Dalea greggii* =20 P 3 Gregg Dalea 1' purple Apr-Nov Nip/nice delicate silver = foliage
Dasylirion texanum* x P 3 Sotol 1' cream March Coarse foliage
Dicentra spp. P 3 Bleeding Heart 1' pink Spring Toxic/allparts/bitter taste/pain in = gut/1%
Equisetum arvense P 3 Horsetail 2' Toxic/all parts
Erigeron modestus*=20 P 3 Plains Fleabane 8" white Mar-Nov Aggressive growth
Erthrina herbacea* Dsh 3 Coral Bean 6' red Apr-Jun Toxic seeds/nip but = outgrow/int.bloom
Eupatorium coelestinum* P 3 Mistflower 2' blue Jul-Dec Aggressive growth/musky odor/many = seeds
Eupatorium wrightii x P 3 White Mistflower 3' white Summer Musk odor/aggressive growth/attracts butterflies
Euronymus japonica Sh 3 Silver King Euron. 4' Toxic/all parts/1%
Eysenhardtia texana x DTr 3 Tx.Kidneywood 15' white Summer Toxic/all parts/attracts = bees
Ficus caria Dsh 3 Common Fig 25' Toxic/sap/stems/leaves
Gelsemimum sempervirens* P 3 Carolina Jasmine 20' yellow April Eat to browse/outgrow aggressively above browse line
Guara lindheimeri* P 3 Scarlet Guara 18 white May-Sep Airy blooms/ nip but = outgrow
Habranthus texanus* =20 P 3 Copper Lily 1' yellow Aug-Sep Outgrow/aggressively = reseed
Helianthus angustifolius* P 3 Swamp Sunflower 3' yellow Aug-Nov Toxic/all parts
Helianthus annuus* A 3 Common Sunflower 5' yellow Mar.Dec Coarse foliage/agg. = growth/1%
Helianthus maximilliani* x P 3 MaximillionSunflower 5' yellow Jul-Oct Aggressive growth/depending on area may be nipped severly until established
Heliotropium convolvulaceum* A 3 Fragrnt Heliotrope 16" white Jun-Oct Sweetly fragrant = flwr/lax/1%
Heliopium spp. A 3 Cherry Pie Plant 1' purple Summer Toxic/all parts/aromatic
Hymenopappus artemisiaefolius* Bi 3 Woolly-White 3' white Mar-Jul Agg/good cut flower/grow sandy = soil
Helleborus niger A 3 Christmas Rose 2' many Winter Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste/1%
Ilex decidua* DSh 3 Possumhaw (F) 1' rd.bery Fall Toxic/strong taste/buck damage = trunks
Ilex vomitoria* ESh 3 Yaupon Holly (F) 1' rd bery Fall Toxic/but nip to browse/buck damage to trunks
Ipomoea pandurata* A 3 Bindweed 15' white May-Oct Eat to browse/grows aggressively =
Lagerstroemia indica Tr 3 Crepe Myrtle 15' many Summer Eat to browse/buck damage in = fall
Ligustrum vulgare DSh 3 Privet 6' white Spring Normally eaten to browse line/ will look like sm.tree
Linum A 3 Flax 1' bl,wh,r May-Sep Toxic/all parts
Lithospermum incisum* P 3 Fringed Puccoon 1' yellow Nov-Jun Winter bloom/poor soil/roots=3Dred = dye
Lythrum californicum* P 3 Purple Loosestrife 3' pink May-Oct Nip but outgrow/blooms = abundantly
Machaeranthera tanaceifolia* A 3 Tahoka Daisy 1' purple May-Oct Foliage sticky/
Magnolia grandiflora* ETr 3 Southern Magnolia tree white May Eat to browse/og/buck = damage-fall
Malus spp. Tr 3 Apple white Spring Toxic: seeds/leaves/bark
Malvaviscus drummondii x P 3 Turk's Cap 2' red Aug-Oct Aromatic/hairy foliage/nice = bloom/berry/1%
Melia azedarach DTr 3 Chinaberry Tree 30' white Lat Spr Toxic/all parts/interesting winter = berries
Nicotiana alata A 3 Nicotiana 2-3' white Jun-Se. Toxic/leaves/1%/very fragrant = flowers
Perezia runcinata* P 3 Peonia 1' pink Mar-Nov Shiny foliage/mny flw/dry/start = seeds
Perezia wrightii* P 3 Brownfoot 2-4' pink May-Nov Desert holly/mny flw/dry/odor of = honey
Phyla nodiflora v. incisa* P 3 Frog Fruit 3' white Jul-Oct Rampant/lax groundcover
Pinus elderica x ESh 3 Afghan Pine 20' Aromatic/fast growing
Pistacia texenanus* DTr 3 Texas Pistacio 15' Nip but outgrow/buck damage = fall
Prospis glandulosa* DTr 3 Mesquite 20' cr.white Mar-Sept Eat to browse/outgrow
Prunus caroliniana ESh 3 Am. Cherry Laurel 4-8' Toxic/ leaves
Prunus persica Tr 3 Peach pinks Spring Toxic/ seeds/leaves/bark
Prunus spp. Tr 3 Apricot/Cherry =20 Plum/Almond 20' many Spring Toxic/ seeds/leaves/bark
Pyrus communis Tr 3 Pear many Spring Toxic/seeds/leaves/bark
Pyrus malus Tr 3 Apple 20' white Spring Toxic/seeds/leaves/bark
Quincula lobata* =20 P 3 Pur Ground Cherry 1' purple Mar-Dec Toxic/all parts/blooms alot =
Ranunculus spp. P 3 Buttercups 1' yellow April Bitter taste/1%
Ricinus communis A 3 Caster Bean 3-5' Jun-Oct Toxic/all parts/irritation/pain in gut/bitter/1%
Ruellia brittoniana* P 3 'Chi-Chi'Ruellia 1' pink Apr-Oct Nip but outgrow/prolific = bloomer
Ruellia nudiflora* P 3 Wild Petunia 3' violet Apr-Oct Nip but outgrow/many = blooms
Sapindus drummondii* DSh 3 Soapberry 15' foliage Fall Toxic/all parts
Symphoricarpos albus DSh 3 Coralberry/Indian Current 3' red berries Fall May eat leaves/berries of = interest
Taxodium distichum* DTr 3 Bald Cypress 30' Nip to browse/Lacy foliage
Tecoma stans* =20 P 3 Yellow Bells 4' yellow May-Oct Profuse bloomer/aggressive = growth/sap
Thalictrum dasycarpum P 3 Purple Meadow-Rue 2-6' yellow Mar-Jul Airy/1%
Ungnadia speciosa* DSh 3 Mexican Buckeye 1' pink Apr-May Toxic/all parts
Wedelia texana* =20 P 3 Zexmania hispida 8" orange May-Nov Groundcover/aggressive = growth
Antigonon leptopus PV 4 Queen's Wreath 20' pk & wh Aug. Nip to browse/aggressive growth = =20
Baccharis halimifilia (F) DSh 4 Baccharis 6-8' white Fall New growth nipped/outgrow
Bignonia capreolata* x E 4 Crossvine 10' red/yel Apr-Jun Eat to browse line/aggressive = growth
Campsis radicans* P 4 Trumpet Creeper 2' orange Jun-Sep Eat to browse line/aggressive = growth
Clematis P 4 Clematis vine 20' many May-Oct Intense burning of mouth/nip to = browse/1%
Lonicera sempervirens* P 4 Coral Honeysuckle 15' red May-Oct Eat to browse line/aggressive growth above browse line
Lycium halimfolium DV 4 Matrimony vine All parts
Merremia aurea PV 4 Yellow Morning Glory 20' yellow May-Sep Nip to browse/Wonderful color/rampant growth/reseeder
Solandra guttata EV 4 Cup of Gold 15' yellow Summer Eat to browse but will = outgrow
Solandra spp. DV 4 Trumpet Flower 20' orange Summer Toxic/all parts/nip to = browse/og/1%

* Native to South Central Texas & Edwards Plateau = ASK FOR PLANTS BY PROPER NAME - ACCEPT NO SUBSTITUTES

1% Rule: To be poisoned, = deer must consume toxic foliage in an amount equal to 1% of it body weight, in one day. 1%BW=3D3-5.5 oz. dry weight. Deer generally take two bites and move on. In addition, gardeners rarely plant enough of a toxic plant species for one deer to be able to consume 3-5.5 oz.DW within a 24 hour = period.


A         Annual
V         Vine  =20
Bi        Biennial
Gr        Grass =20
D         Deciduous
Dsh       Deciduous Shrub=20
E         Evergreen
Esh       Evergreen Shrub=20
P         Perennial
Dtr       Deciduous Tree=20
Sh        Shrub
PV        Perennial Vine
og        Out grow=20
bl        Browse Line / 5.5'hi

This list is a result of the collaborative efforts of the following
people and sincere thanks are extended to each of them:

National Wildflower Research Center
Judy Williamson
Barton Springs Nursery
George Keith Parker
Robbie Wills, Native Texas Nursery
*Hester Currens

Dear Gardener,
This is a work in progress.  My ultimate goal is to publish a book
about gardening in deer country.  I have been able to create an
exuberant cottage style garden that deer could wonder freely in but
did not devour.  Often new plants or new growth on plants was nipped
but the plants survived to grow and bloom prolifically.

Please join me in expanding on the idea of using a scent barrier to
deter deer.  Utilize this list to create the garden you desire.

Please take pictures, keep notes and give me your feedback.  Tell me
about your successes, the failures and how you expanded on or refined
this concept.  Send me a list of other plants, herbs and vegetables
that deer do not eat in your landscape.

I am looking forward to you joining me in this project.  I will need a
wide variety of gardens to illustrate this book.


Patti Simons