By Patti Simons
"Plants can only be called deer resistant not = deer proof. Some plants are quite tasty to deer, others less so. Depending on the density of the deer population, drought = conditions and the availability of other more palatable plants some plants are more = resistant than others. This list is an attempt to classify and define, as a food source for deer, the = desirability of many plants typically found in Central Texas."*
Camouflage Gardening is simply using plants that = contain natural chemicals and have characteristics that deter deer from wanting to eat them. A = scent barrier is created by using a variety of strongly aromatic plants, shrubs and herbs throughout the = garden.
Deer rely on their sense of smell to determine what is safe and = desirable to eat. A wide variety of strong odors confuse the deer. The animal will generally = leave the area and go to a landscape where it can clearly identify what it is eating.
A Deer-Resistant garden = can be created by following four easy steps:
1. Plant list #1 specifies many strongly aromatic plants to use, in = ample numbers, throughout the landscape. Use two plants from list #1 for every one plant on = list #3 or #4.
2. All plants listed #2, have some or all of the = following characteristics: bitter taste, coarse/tough hairy or prickly leaves and/or caustic milky/sticky sap. Deer rarely eat = these plants. Use these plants freely throughout the landscape.
3. Plants in this category reseed prolifically, grow rampantly or = spread aggressively by underground roots. Hidden within an aromatic garden, = these #3 plants rapidly reward the homeowner by ceaselessly increasing in numbers.
Trees suffer two types of damage from deer: the foliage will be eaten = to the browse line (appx. 5-1/2' from the ground), and bucks often fight with and polish their = antlers on resilient saplings, tree trunks under 3" in diameter, and multi-trunk ornamentals. Until the = trees mature, it is wise to protect them with an evergreen scent barrier or a wire cage.
4. Once the perennial and evergreen aromatic plants are used in ample = numbers, list #4, vertical growers (climbing vines and shrubs) and a limited number of your = favorite deer-desirable in-town plants can be hidden within the scent barrier.
CAUTION: Deer will eat almost anything in the = Spring. This is the time when plants are the most tender and are highest in nutrition. This same Spring-time/lush = growth occurs in new nursery stock and when the gardener constantly fertilizes plants. It = will be necessary to spray with Cloud Cover or other deer repellant for approximately = three (3) weeks while the plants "harden off" and become less palatable to deer.
Instead of fertilizing, promote growth and blooms by two easier = methods. Providing very healthy soil, through purchase or amendment, promotes = stronger plants that are more deer-resistant, disease free and are more prolific producers of foliage = or fruit.=20
Deadheading (removing spent blossoms)encourages the = plant to bloom repeatedly in order to set seed. However, the foliage can toughen up naturally.
ASK FOR THESE PLANTS BY PROPER NAME - ACCEPT = NO SUBSTITUTES
© 1996 Patti Simons email: = email@example.com
General Plant List Type CAT Common = Name Size Bloom Color Bloom Time Aesculus pavia* Dsh 1 Red Buckeye 25' red Apr-May Irritation/gut pain/bitter = taste Andropogon gerardi* =20 Gr 1 Big Bluestem 3-6' cream Aug-Nov Rarely eaten Anisacanthus wrightii* P 1 Flame Acanthus 4' orange Jun-Oct Aromatic foliage/strong = taste Anisodontea 'tara's wonder' ? 1 Mini Mallow 2' pink Summer Strongly aromatic/prolific blmr/new to area = Aristida purpurea Gr 1 Purple Treeawn 18" purple Apr-Oct. Rarely eaten/wildlife = habitat Artemisia ludoviciana x P 1 White Sage 2' yellow Jul-Oct. Aromatic/aggressive growth Asclepias linaria P 1 Pineleaf Milkweed 2' white Mar-Oct. Sap/interesting foliage, flower and = pod Asclepias sublata P 1 Desert Milkweed 4' yellow Apr-Oct. Sap rubber/interesting vertical plant/pod dried arrangements Asparagus springerii x E 1 Asparagus Fern 6' Rarely eaten/red berries fall/attracts = birds Bouteloua curtipendula* Gr 1 Sideoats Grama 30" gold June-Nov Rarely eaten Buchloe dactyliodes* Gr 1 Buffalo Grass 1' Rarely eaten Buxus sempervirens E 1 Boxwood 1-5' Toxic/leaves/twigs/aroma/acrid = taste Cassia corymbosa* ESh 1 Common Tree Senna 3-5' yellow Jul-Sept Toxic/bitter taste/not tr sz due to = fz/return Cestrum nocturnum P 1 Nt. Blooming Jasmine 3' white Summer Toxic/all parts Chamaecyparis spp. Dtr 1 Cypress 30' Toxic/all parts/aromatic Chasmanthium latifolium* P 1 Inland Seaoats 3' cream May-Oct Rarely eaten Chelidnium majus Bi 1 Celandine Poppy 4' yellow Summer Pungent smell/acrid taste Chrysanthemum mexicana* P 1 Damianita 18" yellow Jun-Oct Aromatic/coarse foliage Eupatorium rugosum* =20 P 1 White Snakeroot 3' White Aug-Nov Toxic/All parts Euphorbia antisyphilitica E 1 Candelilla 1' pink May-Oct. Sap/ irritation/pain to gut/Interesting = vertical accent Flourensia cernua E 1 Tarbush 3' yellow Sep-Dec. Aromatic foliage w/resin Gutierezia sarothrea EP 1 Snakeweed 18" yellow Fall Toxic/all parts/bitter, soap taste/turpentine odor Hesperaloe paviflora x ESh 1 Red Yucca 2' coral Spring Coarse foliage/deer will always nip flower spike Heterotheca latifolia* P 1 Golden Aster 30" yellow Aug-Nov Aromatic/camphor odor Ilex vomitoria 'nana' x ESh 1 Dwarf Yaupon Holly 18" Rarely eaten/no berries Jasminum mesyni x Sh 1 Primrose Jasmine 3-6' yellow Spring Seldom eaten, marvelous cascading = shrub Jatropha cardiophylla E 1 Limber Bush 3' pods Sept. Bitter Sap when broken Jatropha cuneata Sh 1 Leather Plant 3' pods Sept. Bitter Sap when = broken/semievergreen Jatropha dioica DSh 1 Sangre de Drago 6' white Apr-May Bitter Red Sap/blood of the = dragon Juniperus ashei* ESh 1 Ashe Juniper 18' Aromatic/coarse foliage Juniperus spp. x ESh 1 Juniper 18" Aromatic/coarse foliage Juniperus virginia* ESh 1 Eastern Red Cedar 30' Aromatic/coarse foliage Larrea tridentata* Sh 1 Creosote Bush 6' yellow April Aromatic/sticky sap/rarely = eaten Machaeranthera phyllocephala* A 1 Camphor Daisy 2' yellow Mar-Dec Aromatic/ camphor odor Muhlenbergia capillaris* Gr 1 Gulf Coast Muhly 2' purple Aug-Oct Rarely eaten Muhlenbergia dubia* Gr 1 Pine Muhly 3' cream Aug-Nov Rarely eaten Muhlenbergia dubiodes* Gr 1 Weeping Muhly 18" cream Aug-Nov Rarely eaten Muhlenbergia lindheimeri Gr 1 Muhly Grass 2-5' silver Mid-Oct Rarely eaten Muhlenbergia rigens* Gr 1 Metcalf Muhly 18" silver Sept-Nov Rarely eaten/wildlife = habitat Origanum vulgare x P 1 Oregano 1-3' Aromatic spreading herb Pectis angustifolia* A 1 Lemon Pectis 8' yellow June-Oct Aromatic/strong lemon Perilla frutescens A 1 Perilla Mint 18" Aromatic/pungent/ Toxic/leaves bronze-purple Perovskia atriplicifolia* P 1 Russian Sage 3' lav blue July-Oct Aromatic/outgrow/aggressive Poliomintha longifolia* P 1 Mexican Oregano 3' lav whit May-Aug Aromatic/evergreen/long bloom period/sm.shrub Polyantha Rose ESh 1 The Fairy 3' lt pink Reblooms Wonderful rose/out blooms and outgrows deer Rosmarinus officinalis* x ESh 1 Hill Hdy. Rosemary 3' blue Feb-Apr Aromatic/almost evergreen/use all varieties/plant alot Salvia azurea v.pitcheriii* P 1 Pitcher Sage 3' sky blue May-Oct Aromatic/lacy gray-green = foliage Salvia ballotaeflora* P 1 Blue Shrub Sage 5' blue May-Oct Aromatic/gray-green.foliage Salvia chamaedryoides* P 1 Gray Shrub Sage 3' blue Apr-Oct Aromatic/silver foliage Salvia discolor* =20 P 1 Silver Peruvian Sage 3' purple Apr-My Aromatic/blooms almost black against silver foliage Salvia farinacea* x P 1 Mealy Blue Sage 3' blue Mar-Nov Aromatic/never eaten/blooms Spring to = Fall Salvia greggii x lyciodes* P 1 'Nuevo Leon" 18" purple Apr-Nov Aromatic/lacy foliage Salvia greggii x S.microphylia* P 1 'Red Velvet' 2' red May-Oct Aromatic/evergreen/great = bloomer Salvia greggii* x =20 P 1 Cherry Sage 3' red Mar-Nov Aromatic/mature leaves rarely eaten/long bloom period Salvia guaranitica* P 1 Magestic Sage 4' blu &pur Apr-Oct Aromatic/wonderful plant Salvia leucantha* x P 1 Mexican Bush Sage 4' purple Sept-Oct Aromatic/silver foliage/good = bloom Salvia longispica x farinacea* P 1 'Indigo Spires' 4' blue Apr-Oct Aromatic/just blooms, blooms, = blooms Salvia lycioides* P 1 Canyon Sage 18" blue Spr/Fall Aromatic/evergreen Salvia lyrata* =20 P 1 Lyre-Leaf Sage 18" blue Feb-Apr Aromatic/reseeds = aggresively Salvia regla* P 1 Mountain Sage 3' orange Sept-Oct Aromatic/tall open Salvia roemeriana* P 1 Cedar Sage 1' red Mar-June Aromatic/repeat bloomer Salvia uliginosa * P 1 Bog Sage 5' blue Mar-Nov Aromatic/aggressive Sambacus canadensis* DSh 1 Elderberry 10' white May-Sept Toxic/aggressive growth/beautiful = flowers Santolina chamaecyparissus x P 1 Santolina 2 yellow Summer Aromatic, felted, fine textured = foliage Santolina virens EP 1 Santolina 18" yellow Summer Aromatic, rich green threadlike = foliage Schizachryium scoparium* Gr 1 Little Bluestem 3' white Aug-Nov Rarely eaten Stachys coccinea* =20 P 1 Texas Betony 1' red Mar-Oct Aromatic/low mat-forming Stipa tenuissima* Gr 1 Mexican Feathergrass 18" gold May-Aug Rarely eaten Tagetes lemmonii*=20 P 1 Copper Canyon Daisy 3-4' yellow May-Sept Aromatic Tagetes lucida* =20 P 1 Mexican Marigold 20" yellow May-Sept Aromatic/tarrogon/great fall = bloomer Tanacetum vulgare P 1 Tansy 3' yellow Toxic/all parts/aromatic Thelesperma filifolium*=20 A 1 Black-eyed Susan 2' yellow Feb-Dec Aromatic Truja spp.=20 x E 1 Cedar 20' Aromatic/strong oil/bitter = taste Verbesina enceliodies* A 1 Cow-Pen Daisy 3' yellow Feb-Dec Strong odor when touched Verbesina virginia P 1 Frostweed 3-7' white Aug-Nov Sap/bitter taste/attracts Monarch = Butterflies Xanthocephalum dracunculiodes* P 1 Common Broomweed 3' yellow Sept-Dec Rarely eaten Achillea millefolium* x P 2 Yarrow 10" white Apr-Jun Tastes bitter/aromatic Adonis annua* A 2 Pheasant's Eye 1-2' red Feb-Jun Toxic/bitter taste/dry/easy frm seed/1% = Aesculus arguta* DSh 2 White Buckeye 25' pl.yello Apr-May Irritation/pain in digestive tract/bitter = taste Aesculus pavia* Tr 2 Red Buckeye 25' red Apr-May Toxic Agave leuchugilla* ESh 2 Agave 12' purple Rainfall Coarse foliage Agave scabra* Esh 2 Century Plant 1' yellow Apr-May Coarse foliage Apocynum androsaemilolium* P 2 Dogbane 2' pink Apr-July Milky sap/bitter sap Argemone mexicana* A 2 Yellow Prickly Poppy 18" yellow Apr-Oct Toxic/all parts/prickly foliage/bitter = taste Argemone sanguinea* A 2 Rose Prickly Poppy 4' rose Feb-May Prickly foliage/easy from seed/good = cut Argemone texana* =20 P 2 White Prickly Poppy 30" white Apr-May Toxic/all parts/prickly foliage/bitter = taste Asclepias asperula* =20 P 2 Antelope-Horns 8" gr/yel Mar-Nov Sap tastes bitter/attracts = butterflies Asclepias tuberosa* =20 P 2 Butterfly Weed 2' orange Apr-Sept Tastes bitter/milky sap Asclepias virdii* =20 P 2 Green Milkweed 2' green Mar-Sept Tastes bitter/milky sap Baileya multiradiata* A 2 Desert Marigold 9" yellow Mar-Oct Coarse foliage/reseeds Baptisia spp. P 2 False Indigo 3-6' blue May Toxic/all parts/tastes = bitter Berberis swaseyi* ESh 2 Tex.Barberry 3-4' yellow Spring Rarely eaten Bervberus trifoliolata* x ESh 2 Agarita 4' Prickly, coarse foliage/bitter = taste Brugmansia spp. P 2 Yellow Datura 3-4' yellow summer Strong odor/burning taste/sweet smelling evening blooms Bucharest sarothroides(F) ESh 2 Dessert Broom 5' white Fall Pods cover plant in fluffy = blanket Caesalpinia gilliesii*=20 P 2 Bird of Paradise 5' yel/red May-Sep Rarely eaten Carduus nutans* =20 Bi 2 Nodding Thistle 30" pink May-Jul Musk odor/prickly Carduus texanum* Bi 2 Texas Thistle 4' pink May-Jul Prickly foliage/sap Centaurea melitensis* A 2 Tocalote Thistle 30" yellow Mar-Aug Musk odor/prickly Centaurea texanum* Bi 2 Texas Thistle 4' pink May-Jul Prickly foliage/sap Centaurium beyrichii P 2 Mountain Pink 9" pink Summer Relatively unpalatable Cephalanthus occidentalis Sh 2 Common Buttonbush 2-3' white Jun-Se Toxic/leaves Chrysanthemum leucanthemum*x ES 2 Ox-Eye Daisy 2' white May Aromatic Cichorium intybus* P 2 Chicory 3' blue Jun-Oct Milky sap/bitter taste Cirsium horridulum* ES 2 Yellow Thistle 3' yellow Mar-Jun Prickly foliage Cleome serrulata A 2 Bee Plant 4' many May-Oct Toxic/leaves/prolific = blooms/reseeds Colchium autumnal S 2 Autumn Crocus 8" yellow Fall Toxic/all parts/intense pain in = gut/1% Convallaria majalis Blb 2 Lily-of-the-Valley 8" white Spring Toxic/all parts Cordalis aurea* A 2 Scrambeled Eggs 1-2' yellow Feb-Apr Toxic/bitter taste Dalea greggii* =20 P 2 Gregg Dalea/silver 1' purple Apr-Nov Nipped/surround with = aromatics Datura innoxia P 2 Datura 3-5' white Summer Toxic/all parts/wonderful = bloom Datura metheioldes P 2 Datura 3-5' dbl pur Summer Toxic/all parts/wonderful blooms & = foliage Datura quercifolia A 2 Datura 3-5' white Summer Toxic/all parts/wonderful blooms/oak leaf foliage Datura wrightii* =20 P 2 Datura/Jimsonweed 3' white May-Nov Toxic/all parts/bitter taste/fragrant = flower Daucus carota* =20 P 2 Queen Anne's Lace 30" white May-Jul Rarely eaten/Blooms = abundantly Delphinium carolinianum* P 2 Blue Larkspur 2' blue May-Jul Toxic/all parts when young/seeds as grows older Descuraninia pinnata A 2 Tansy Mustard 3' yellow Feb-Apr Winter/dens.hairy/sticky/poor = soil/1% Digitalis purpurea Bi 2 Foxglove 3-5' pink Spring Pain in mouth/throat Dyschoriste linearis* P 2 Snake Herb 1' purple Jun-Oct Bitter taste/spicy = fragrance Dyssodia pentachaeta* A 2 Parralena 8" yellow Mar-Dec Unpleasant scent/bitter = taste Dyssodia setifolia v radiata A 2 Tiny Tim 12" yellow Mar-Frz Gray furry foliage/strong scent/bitter = taste Ericameria laricifolia Sh 2 Turpentine Bush 2-3' yellow Sep-Nov Sticky resin/strong scent Erygium heterophyllum* P 2 Mexican Thistle 2' sk blue Aug-Oct Coarse silver foliage/dries = well Eryngium leavenworthii* P 2 Eryngo 3' purple Aug-Sep Coarse foliaged/dries well Eschscholtzia californica A 2 California Poppy 1' orange Spring Toxic/all parts Eupatorium perforlifum P 2 Joe-pye Weed 3-5' pink Sep-Frz Toxic/all parts/likes damp = places Euphorbia bicolor A 2 Snow-on-the- Prairie 1-3' wh/gren Aug-Oct Euphorbia marginata A 2 Snow-on-the-Mountain 2' wh/gren May-Oct Sap/irritation/pain in gut Europs spp. P 2 Daisy Bush 2' yellow Summer Aromatic silver or green = foliage Excium vulgare L. Bi 2 Viper's Buglass 1' purple Summer Toxic/all parts/bitter taste/reseeds/attracts bees Ficus pumila x E 2 Fig Vine 6' Exc.foundation cover/not easily eaten by = deer Gaillardia pulchella*=20 A 2 Indian Blanket 14" red/yel Feb-Dec Rarely eaten Gloriosa supurba L. B 2 Gloriosa Lily 6-8' yel/red Summer Toxic/all parts/intense pain in = gut/1% Gomphrena globosa A 2 Globe Amarantha 1' pu/pk/w Summer Rarely eaten/red most often nipped repeatedly Grindelia lanceolata P 2 Fall Gumweed 2-3' yellow Fall Sticky to touch Helianthus angustifolius* P 2 Swamp Sunflower 3' yellow Aug-Nov Toxic Helenium amarum* A 2 Bitterweed 1' yellow Apr-Frz Bitter taste/prolific = bloomer Heliotropium helianthoides P 2 Yellow Ox-eye 3-4' yellow Summer Toxic/all parts Hymenoxys scaposa* x P 2 Four-Nerve Daisy 10" yellow Feb-Oct Bitter taste/aromatic Iscoma wrightii* =20 A 2 Jimmyweed 2' yellow Jun-Oct Bitter tastes/sticky Lantana camara & montevidensis x P 2 Lantana 1-3' many Summer Aromatic/aggressive growth/long bloom period Lantana horrida* =20 P 2 Texas Lantana 3-5' or/yel Apr-Oct Toxic/coarse foliage Leucophyllum frutescens* ESh 2 Cenizo 3-6' pink Jun-Oct Toxic/bucks fight w/in = fall Linum sulcatum* A 2 Y.Prairie Flax 1-1' yellow May-Aug Toxic/many flowers/delicate = look/1% Lipidium montanum* P 2 Westn.Peppergrass 1-2' white Mar-Frz Aromatic/strong peppery = odor Lobelia cardinalis* P 2 Cardinal Flower 3' red May-Dec Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste Lobelia siphilitica A 2 Blue Cardinal Flower 3' blue May Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste/1% Lupinus texensis* =20 A 2 Texas Bluebonnet 1' blue Mar-May Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste Lycium andersonii Sh 2 Desert Wolfberry 6' lavender Feb-May Bitter taste/trumpet flowers turn to red berries Lycium berlandieri Sh 2 Berlandier Wolfberry 6' pl lav Mar-Sep Bitter taste/Fall berries Lycium fremontii Sh 2 Fremont Thornbush 3' white=20 lav Sp/Fall Bitter taste/two season = bloom Melampodium leucanthum* P 2 Black-Foot Daisy 10" wh=20 lav Mar-Nov Rarely eaten Monardia citriodora* P 2 Lemon Beebalm 30" mauve May-Jun Aromatic/citronella taste Nyctagina capitata* P 2 Scarlet Musk-Flwr 1-2' pnk/red Apr-Nov Aromatic/open eve/gd flwr/devil's = bouquet Ophiopogon japonica EGr 2 Mondo 6-8" Rarely eaten Oxytropis lambertii*=20 P 2 Locoweed 1' pink Apr-Jul Toxic/all parts Palafoxia hookeriana* A 2 Palafoxia 2-4' pink Sum&Fal Sticky to feel/reseeds Papaver Nudicaule P 2 Iceland Poppy 1-2' many Apr-May Topxic/all part Papaver Oriental A 2 Oriental Poppy 4' many Apr-May Toxic/all parts Papaver Rhoeas A 2 Corn Poppy 2-5' many May Toxic/all parts Papaver somniferum A 2 Opium Poppy 4' many Spring Toxic/all parts Parkinsonia aculeata* Tr 2 Paloverde/ Retama 12' yellow Spring Coarse/nip to browse but = outgrow Phlomis spp. P 2 Phlomis 4' yellow Summer Aromatic Physalis spp. A 2 Ground Cherry 9" blue Summer Toxic/all parts/Fall berry Phystegia intermedia* P 2 Spr.Obedient Plant 3' lav Mar-Jun Aromatic/outgrow nips/aggressive = growth Phystegia virginiana* P 2 Fall Obedient Plant 3' pk/white July-Oct Aromatic/outgrow/aggressive = growth Pluchea camphorata* A 2 Camphor Weed 2-4' pink Jul-Nov Aromatic/coarse/many flowers/damp = soil Pluchea purpurascens* A 2 Marsh Fleabane 1-3' pink May-Dec Aromatic/coarse/many flowers/damp = soil Picradeniopsis spp. P 2 Bahia 1' yellow Sp &Fal Bitter taste Plumbago auriculata x P 2 Cape Plumbago 1-2' blue Summer Rarely eaten/Fall = foliage/draping Polaniaia uniglandulosa* A 2 Clammyweed 2' white May-Sep Sticky/profuse blooms/reseeds = aggressively Polytaenia nuttallii* Bi 2 Wild Dill 3' yellow Apr-Jun Bitter taste/slight aroma Prionopsis ciliata* =20 A 2 Saw-Leaf Daisy 30" yellow Aug-Oct Toxic/coarse foliage Psilostrophe tagetina* =20 P 2 Woolly Paper Flw 1' yellow Mar-Oct Toxic/all parts Psoralea tenuiflora* P 2 Scurfy Pea 2' vio blue May-Jly Rarely eaten/lax/mny = flw/1% Pteridium auilinum P 2 Bracken Fern 1-2' Toxic/all parts/likes to be = dry Quincula lobata* P 2 Pur Ground Cherry 1' purple Mar-Dec Toxic/all parts/blooms continually = Rhus aromatica* Sh 2 Aromatic Sumac 6' foliage Fall Coarse foliage/rarely = eaten Rhus virens* Tr 2 Evergreen Sumac 8' foliage Fall Coarse foliage/rarely = eaten Rudbeckia fulgida* =20 A 2 Goldstrum Rudbeckia 3' yellow Jun-Sep Coarse foliage Rudbeckia hirta* x =20 A 2 Black-eyed Susan 2' yellow May-Sep Rarely eaten Rudbeckia lacinata P 2 Goldenglow 3-5' yellow Jun&Oct All parts cause irritation/pain in gut/ Aggressive growth Salvia coccinea* x P 2 Tropical Sage 30" o/p/r/w May-Oct Aromatic/aggressive = bloomer/reseeder Sapindus drummondii*x Sh 2 Soapberry 15' foliage Fall Toxic/all parts Saponaria officinalis P 2 Bouncing Bet 3' pink Summer Bitter/soap-like = taste/bloomer/draping Scutellaria seleniana* P 2 Skullcap 3' purple Apr-Aug Coarse foliage Scutellaria suffrutescens* P 2 Pink Skullcap 1' pink May-Nov Coarse evergreen/ever = bloom Senecio ampullaaceus* A 2 Tx.Squaw-Weed 1-3' yellow Feb-Apr Toxic/agg growth/poor = soil/1% Senecio jacobea BI 2 Tansy Ragwort 3' yellow Aug-Sep Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste Senecio leucostachys A 2 Dusty Miller 1' Toxic/silver leaves/bitter = taste Silphium albifloum* P 2 Rosin Weed 40" white May-Jul Sticky sap/stem/leaves Silphium simpsonii v.wrightii*=20 P 2 Simpson R. Weed 4' yellow Jun-Jul Sticky sap/stem/leaves Solanum elaeanifolium* P 2 Slv-Leaf Nightshade 3' pur& wh Mar-Oct Toxic/prickly/black fruit = fall/bitter Solanum jasminoides PV 2 Potato Vine 15' white Apr-Oct Toxic/all parts/bitter,soap-like taste/wonderful blooms Solanum speudocapsicum P 2 Jerusalem Cherry 1' blue Apr-Oct Toxic/all parts/bitter taste/aggressive = reseeder Solidago canadensis* P 2 Goldenrod 4' yellow Sep-Nov Toxic/coarse foliage Solidago mollis P 2 Goldenrod 4' yellow Fall Toxoc/coarse foliage Solidago petiolaris* P 2 Goldenrod 4' yellow Fall Toxic/coarse foliage/agg./lg.flower = clusers Solidago rugosa P 2 Goldenrod 4' yellow Fall Toxic/coarse foliage = aggressive Sophora secundiflora* ETr 2 Texas Mtn. Laurel 8' purple Mar-May Toxic/all parts/buck damage = fall Stachys byzantina x P 2 Lamb's Ears 6" lav Summer Rarely eaten/great silver = groundcover Symphytum spp. A 2 Comfrey 3' lav May-Aug Toxic/all parts Tephorosia lindheimerie* P 2 Lindheimer Tephrosia 3' pink Mar-Oct Rarely eaten/aggressive = growth Veratrum viride P 2 False Hellebore Toxic/all parts Verbascum thapsus* Bi 2 Common Mullein 30" yellow Jul-Sep Toxic/all pts/rosette of silver leaves until = spike appears Verbena bipinnatifida* P 2 Prairie Verbena 1' pink Apr-Oct Aromatic/many flowers/nip but = outgrow Verbena peruviana x E 2 Peruvian Verbena 1x4' pink Apr-Oct Aromatic/agg.growth/almost evergreen/long bloom Verbena tenuisecta* P 2 Moss Verbena 1' pk &pur Apr-Oct Fern-like foliage/Long bloom period/nip but outgrow Vernonia baldwinii*=20 P 2 Western Ironweed 2' pink Jul-Oct Coarse foliage Vernonia lindheimeri* P 2 Woolly Ironweed 32" pink May-Aug Coarse foliage/silver = foliage Viburnum rufidulum* Sh 2 Rusty Blackhaw 5' white May Coarse foliage/silver underside/nice flower/berries in Fall Viguiera denata* =20 P 2 Golden-eye 3' yellow Oct-Nov Musky odor Vinca rosea A 2 Madagascar Periwinkle 1-2' many May-Sep Aromatic/rarely eaten/prolific bloomer/may reseed Wisteria macrostachya* P 2 Wisteria vine purple April Rarely eaten/nip but = outgrow Zantedeschia aethiopica P 2 Calla Lily 2' white spring Sap/in all parts burns = mouth/1% Zinnia acerosa* =20 P 2 Native Zinnia 10" white Jun-Oct Rarely eaten Zinnia grandiflora EP 2 Zinnia 6-8" yellow May-Oct Rarely eaten/attracts = butterflies Actae pachpoda spp. Sh 3 Baneberry 2' white Apr-May Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste/berries Allamanda cathartica A 3 Allamanda 10' yellow Jun-Sep Toxic/all parts/sap Allium spp. P 3 Onions, Chives 1-2' many Apr-Oct Nipped but not = killed/Toxic/1% Amelanchier spp. Tr 3 Serviceberry white April Toxic/leaves/twigs Amsonia illustris P 3 Showy Blue-Star 2-4' blue Mar-Jun Coarse foliage/gd flwr/damp/easy = seed/1% Aster pratensis P 3 Meadow Aster 2-3' purple Sep-Nov Many flw/nip but worth = planting/1% Callicarpa americana* x DSh 3 American Beauty Bush 3-5' Eat foliage/Fall berry = beautiful Caltha palustris P 3 Windflower 2' yellow April Bitter taste/1% Cassia lindheimeriana* P 3 Lindheimer Senna 2' yellow Aug-Sep Toxic/bitter taste Cassia roemeriana* P 3 Two-Leaved Senna 2' yellow Apr-Sep Toxic/long bloom per./easy from = seed/1% Cheiranthus chieranthoides Bi 3 Wormseed Wallflower 1-2' many Spring Bitter taste Cooperia drummondii* P 3 Rain Lily 1' white Rainfal Aggressively reseed/1% Cooperia pedunculata* P 3 Rain Lily 1' yellow Fall =20 Aggressive reseeder/bloom after = rain/1% Cotinus obovatus* DSh 3 Am.Smoke Tree 15' rose Spring Nip but outgrow/wonderful = tree Cotoneaster glaucophyllus ESh 3 Cotoneaster 4' Generally not eaten/silver foliage/rd fall fruit/att.birds Cotoneaster horizontalis x ESh 3 Cotoneaster 3' Generally not eaten/red fall = fruit/birds Cytisus scoparius Dsh 3 Broom 1-3' yellow Summer Bitter taste Dalea frutescens* x P 3 Black Dalea 2' purple Jul-Oct Delicate looking silver = foliage Dalea greggii* =20 P 3 Gregg Dalea 1' purple Apr-Nov Nip/nice delicate silver = foliage Dasylirion texanum* x P 3 Sotol 1' cream March Coarse foliage Dicentra spp. P 3 Bleeding Heart 1' pink Spring Toxic/allparts/bitter taste/pain in = gut/1% Equisetum arvense P 3 Horsetail 2' Toxic/all parts Erigeron modestus*=20 P 3 Plains Fleabane 8" white Mar-Nov Aggressive growth Erthrina herbacea* Dsh 3 Coral Bean 6' red Apr-Jun Toxic seeds/nip but = outgrow/int.bloom Eupatorium coelestinum* P 3 Mistflower 2' blue Jul-Dec Aggressive growth/musky odor/many = seeds Eupatorium wrightii x P 3 White Mistflower 3' white Summer Musk odor/aggressive growth/attracts butterflies Euronymus japonica Sh 3 Silver King Euron. 4' Toxic/all parts/1% Eysenhardtia texana x DTr 3 Tx.Kidneywood 15' white Summer Toxic/all parts/attracts = bees Ficus caria Dsh 3 Common Fig 25' Toxic/sap/stems/leaves Gelsemimum sempervirens* P 3 Carolina Jasmine 20' yellow April Eat to browse/outgrow aggressively above browse line Guara lindheimeri* P 3 Scarlet Guara 18 white May-Sep Airy blooms/ nip but = outgrow Habranthus texanus* =20 P 3 Copper Lily 1' yellow Aug-Sep Outgrow/aggressively = reseed Helianthus angustifolius* P 3 Swamp Sunflower 3' yellow Aug-Nov Toxic/all parts Helianthus annuus* A 3 Common Sunflower 5' yellow Mar.Dec Coarse foliage/agg. = growth/1% Helianthus maximilliani* x P 3 MaximillionSunflower 5' yellow Jul-Oct Aggressive growth/depending on area may be nipped severly until established Heliotropium convolvulaceum* A 3 Fragrnt Heliotrope 16" white Jun-Oct Sweetly fragrant = flwr/lax/1% Heliopium spp. A 3 Cherry Pie Plant 1' purple Summer Toxic/all parts/aromatic Hymenopappus artemisiaefolius* Bi 3 Woolly-White 3' white Mar-Jul Agg/good cut flower/grow sandy = soil Helleborus niger A 3 Christmas Rose 2' many Winter Toxic/all parts/bitter = taste/1% Ilex decidua* DSh 3 Possumhaw (F) 1' rd.bery Fall Toxic/strong taste/buck damage = trunks Ilex vomitoria* ESh 3 Yaupon Holly (F) 1' rd bery Fall Toxic/but nip to browse/buck damage to trunks Ipomoea pandurata* A 3 Bindweed 15' white May-Oct Eat to browse/grows aggressively = Lagerstroemia indica Tr 3 Crepe Myrtle 15' many Summer Eat to browse/buck damage in = fall Ligustrum vulgare DSh 3 Privet 6' white Spring Normally eaten to browse line/ will look like sm.tree Linum A 3 Flax 1' bl,wh,r May-Sep Toxic/all parts Lithospermum incisum* P 3 Fringed Puccoon 1' yellow Nov-Jun Winter bloom/poor soil/roots=3Dred = dye Lythrum californicum* P 3 Purple Loosestrife 3' pink May-Oct Nip but outgrow/blooms = abundantly Machaeranthera tanaceifolia* A 3 Tahoka Daisy 1' purple May-Oct Foliage sticky/ Magnolia grandiflora* ETr 3 Southern Magnolia tree white May Eat to browse/og/buck = damage-fall Malus spp. Tr 3 Apple white Spring Toxic: seeds/leaves/bark Malvaviscus drummondii x P 3 Turk's Cap 2' red Aug-Oct Aromatic/hairy foliage/nice = bloom/berry/1% Melia azedarach DTr 3 Chinaberry Tree 30' white Lat Spr Toxic/all parts/interesting winter = berries Nicotiana alata A 3 Nicotiana 2-3' white Jun-Se. Toxic/leaves/1%/very fragrant = flowers Perezia runcinata* P 3 Peonia 1' pink Mar-Nov Shiny foliage/mny flw/dry/start = seeds Perezia wrightii* P 3 Brownfoot 2-4' pink May-Nov Desert holly/mny flw/dry/odor of = honey Phyla nodiflora v. incisa* P 3 Frog Fruit 3' white Jul-Oct Rampant/lax groundcover Pinus elderica x ESh 3 Afghan Pine 20' Aromatic/fast growing Pistacia texenanus* DTr 3 Texas Pistacio 15' Nip but outgrow/buck damage = fall Prospis glandulosa* DTr 3 Mesquite 20' cr.white Mar-Sept Eat to browse/outgrow Prunus caroliniana ESh 3 Am. Cherry Laurel 4-8' Toxic/ leaves Prunus persica Tr 3 Peach pinks Spring Toxic/ seeds/leaves/bark Prunus spp. Tr 3 Apricot/Cherry =20 Plum/Almond 20' many Spring Toxic/ seeds/leaves/bark Pyrus communis Tr 3 Pear many Spring Toxic/seeds/leaves/bark Pyrus malus Tr 3 Apple 20' white Spring Toxic/seeds/leaves/bark Quincula lobata* =20 P 3 Pur Ground Cherry 1' purple Mar-Dec Toxic/all parts/blooms alot = Ranunculus spp. P 3 Buttercups 1' yellow April Bitter taste/1% Ricinus communis A 3 Caster Bean 3-5' Jun-Oct Toxic/all parts/irritation/pain in gut/bitter/1% Ruellia brittoniana* P 3 'Chi-Chi'Ruellia 1' pink Apr-Oct Nip but outgrow/prolific = bloomer Ruellia nudiflora* P 3 Wild Petunia 3' violet Apr-Oct Nip but outgrow/many = blooms Sapindus drummondii* DSh 3 Soapberry 15' foliage Fall Toxic/all parts Symphoricarpos albus DSh 3 Coralberry/Indian Current 3' red berries Fall May eat leaves/berries of = interest Taxodium distichum* DTr 3 Bald Cypress 30' Nip to browse/Lacy foliage Tecoma stans* =20 P 3 Yellow Bells 4' yellow May-Oct Profuse bloomer/aggressive = growth/sap Thalictrum dasycarpum P 3 Purple Meadow-Rue 2-6' yellow Mar-Jul Airy/1% Ungnadia speciosa* DSh 3 Mexican Buckeye 1' pink Apr-May Toxic/all parts Wedelia texana* =20 P 3 Zexmania hispida 8" orange May-Nov Groundcover/aggressive = growth Antigonon leptopus PV 4 Queen's Wreath 20' pk & wh Aug. Nip to browse/aggressive growth = =20 Baccharis halimifilia (F) DSh 4 Baccharis 6-8' white Fall New growth nipped/outgrow Bignonia capreolata* x E 4 Crossvine 10' red/yel Apr-Jun Eat to browse line/aggressive = growth Campsis radicans* P 4 Trumpet Creeper 2' orange Jun-Sep Eat to browse line/aggressive = growth Clematis P 4 Clematis vine 20' many May-Oct Intense burning of mouth/nip to = browse/1% Lonicera sempervirens* P 4 Coral Honeysuckle 15' red May-Oct Eat to browse line/aggressive growth above browse line Lycium halimfolium DV 4 Matrimony vine All parts Merremia aurea PV 4 Yellow Morning Glory 20' yellow May-Sep Nip to browse/Wonderful color/rampant growth/reseeder Solandra guttata EV 4 Cup of Gold 15' yellow Summer Eat to browse but will = outgrow Solandra spp. DV 4 Trumpet Flower 20' orange Summer Toxic/all parts/nip to = browse/og/1%
* Native to South Central Texas & Edwards Plateau = ASK FOR PLANTS BY PROPER NAME - ACCEPT NO SUBSTITUTES
1% Rule: To be poisoned, = deer must consume toxic foliage in an amount equal to 1% of it body weight, in one day. 1%BW=3D3-5.5 oz. dry weight. Deer generally take two bites and move on. In addition, gardeners rarely plant enough of a toxic plant species for one deer to be able to consume 3-5.5 oz.DW within a 24 hour = period.
LEGENDA Annual V Vine =20 Bi Biennial Gr Grass =20 D Deciduous Dsh Deciduous Shrub=20 E Evergreen Esh Evergreen Shrub=20 P Perennial Dtr Deciduous Tree=20 Sh Shrub PV Perennial Vine og Out grow=20 bl Browse Line / 5.5'hi
This list is a result of the collaborative efforts of the following people and sincere thanks are extended to each of them: National Wildflower Research Center Judy Williamson Barton Springs Nursery George Keith Parker Robbie Wills, Native Texas Nursery *Hester Currens
Dear Gardener, This is a work in progress. My ultimate goal is to publish a book about gardening in deer country. I have been able to create an exuberant cottage style garden that deer could wonder freely in but did not devour. Often new plants or new growth on plants was nipped but the plants survived to grow and bloom prolifically. Please join me in expanding on the idea of using a scent barrier to deter deer. Utilize this list to create the garden you desire. Please take pictures, keep notes and give me your feedback. Tell me about your successes, the failures and how you expanded on or refined this concept. Send me a list of other plants, herbs and vegetables that deer do not eat in your landscape. I am looking forward to you joining me in this project. I will need a wide variety of gardens to illustrate this book. Thanks, Patti Simons firstname.lastname@example.org